The Healthy Foot and Ankle
The ankle is a load-bearing ball-and-socket joint that relies on surrounding muscles, ligaments, and connective tissues for proper function. Here is a brief overview of the properties of a healthy foot and ankle.
- The human ankle is a synovial hinge joint composed of the tibia and fibula of the lower leg, and the talus in the foot.
- These bones are held together by tendons and ligaments, and are separated by a shock-absorbing layer of smooth articular cartilage.
- The cartilage allows the bones to roll over each other with little resistance.
Problems of the Foot and Ankle
Common problems experienced in the foot and ankle include:
- Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis
- Ligament sprain or tear
- Bone fracture from age or injury
- Achilles tendon rupture
- Swollen or inflamed synovial membrane, the lining of the joint
- Plantar fasciitis
If you have osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ligament sprain or tear, bone fracture, swollen or inflamed synovial membrane or plantar fasciitis, mesenchymal stem cell injections can be used in conjunction with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to decrease pain and increase joint mobility and function.